Muslim lady in the cabinet as new Govt. takes shape in Maharashtra:
The new government in Maharashtra headed by Ashok Chavan as Chief Minister has Fauzia
Khan, a Muslim lady.....
Allies with Wolf!
Kerala Christian Group and VHP join Hands against illusory Love
At a point of time there was a slogan
by RSS combine, Pehle Kasai ...
Bihar Govt., AMU Centre "lands' in row:
While the process of land acquisition
for four other centers of Aligarh Muslim University has set in
motion, in Bihar the whole exercise has got mired in controversy.
And the credit for giving birth to this ....
Sarfaraz does a Tendulkar, wants to fulfill father's dream:
Two decades ago Sachin Tendulkar used the Mumbai schools tournament
to announce he was good enough to play for India, and now
12-year-old Sarfaraz .....
More on ummid
Witness claims Modi abused Jafri when he called for
help: A key witness in the Gulbarg massacre
case has told a special court that chief minister Narendra Modi had
abused former MP Ehsan Jafri when he called him for....
What really happened during the Israeli attacks?:
In southwest Israel, at the border of Egypt and the
Gaza Strip, there is a small crossing station not far from a kibbutz
named Kerem Shalom....
Indian engineer builds glaciers
to stop warming:
A retired Indian engineer, Chewang Norphel,
76, has built 12 new glaciers already and is racing to create five
more before he dies, and by then he hopes to train enough new
'icemen' to continue ...
to end women exploitation, eliminate poverty:
"During a survey we
found these women skilled, ambitious, honest and very hardworking.
Still, just because they did not have resources...
Man Bent on Exposing the Truth:
Son of a Mughal
descendent, Shamsuddin Agha in 1962 was
teaching English language and Calssical Persian at VS Patel College
A Ten Year Plan For
the Total Education of Indian Muslims: Urging the
audience that instead of depending on the government or anyone, they
should effectively utilize whatever resources they have, Kapdi said,
All Hardship for
Nothing is more
important today than a better coordination among the South Asian countries
and a durable peace between India and Pakistan. There are many people who
are working overnights....Read
Tuesday, November 10, 2009 07:23:49 PM,
Audio:Maulana Azad's historic
address to the Indian Muslims from Jama Masjid after the
Maulana Azad as Freedom Fighter: It is
significant that all these moves and various political
activities of Azad were initiated before the emergence of
Gandhiji on the political horizon. Advent of Gandhiji into the
National Movement and Azad's meeting with him had crucial
bearing on the future course of the...Click
Maulana Azad's efforts in shaping the Education policy in
Maulana Azad was a great educationist too. His standing as an
outstanding scholar of Oriental learning was demonstrated in
moulding the educational system of the country in the immediate
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Preacher of Peace
Azad was opposed to the partition of the country on the basis of the
religion and believed the partition would create more problems than
His devotion to Indian National Movements was the result of the new...Click
In the galaxy of
the patriots of India's freedom struggle, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
occupies a distinctive position. He was a savant statesman and the
tallest among the nationalist Muslim who fought for a united India.
Along with Jawahar Lal Nehru and Sardar Patel, Maulana Azad
comprised the famous trio that carried out the negotiation to usher
in freedom and laid the foundation of a secular society in India.
Born on 11
November, 1888 in an orthodox family of Maulana Khairuddin and to
his Arab wife,
Aliyah, as one of their five children, Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmad, who
came to be known later as Abul Kalam Azad, had combined in him
scholarly pursuits, sturdy independence of character and a distinct
mental bent towards unworldliness.
took pride in tracing his birth from an ancestor who earned a name
for himself during the reign of Emperor Akbar. One of his ancestors,
Maulana Jamaluddin was a contemporary of Akbar, the Great. “I am the
ninth of tenth in paternal descent from Sheikh Jamaluddin", Azad
said to Mahadeo Desai, one of his earlier biographers......I can say
that there wasn't one of my ancestors, but was noted for his
learning and Sufism.”
Munawaruddin, father of Azad's grandmother, got frustrated at the
conditions, prevailing in the country during 1855. He decided to
migrate to Hedjaz. On his way to Bombay, he passed through Bhopal.
Sikander Begum, the ruler of Bhopal, was so impressed by his sermons
that she prevailed upon him to stay on there. During the revolt of
1857 he made his way into Bombay and died there during 1858_59.
Azad's father, Maulana Khairuddin, who had accompanied Maulana
Bombay, however, continued his education in India and hence was able
to derive the maximum benefit from the teachings of the scholars at
Makkah and Madinah.
exercised considerable influence in the formation of his character
and personality. Maulana Khairuddin was a learned scholar and a
Master of theology. He was the only Indian Muslim scholar of the
time to have been selected to teach the tenets of Islam in the
holiest Muslim seminary of the world. His mother too belonged to a
family of scholars of Makkah.
Azad was only
thirteen when his father got him married to Zulaikha Begum, the
daughter of Aftabuddin Ahmad, an admirer of Maulana Khaiructdin.
According to his sister Fatima Begum, Azad kept crying at the time
of his marriage, why am I being to the women's apartment. Zuleikha
Begum also had a good schooling in Urdu and Persian and knew
elementary Arabic. She was an accomplished lady, well versed in
household affairs and was of a very hospitable nature. She took good
care of Maulana Azad and evinced keen interest in his books and
Khairuddin remained in Hedjaz for about 20 years before he paid his
first returned visit to India in 1887. After that he continued
travelling between India and Hedjaz till1897 when he was persuaded
by his disciples and followers to come back to India and accept to
be the Imam of Calcutta, the then capital of British India Empire.
In Makkah, Azad and his brother, Abu Nasr, studied together and
before they left in 1897, they had completed their study of the
Qur’an and had learnt the fundamentals of Arabic, Urdu and Persian
from the prominent scholars of the day.
Mazamine-Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Masal-ai-Khilafat Aur Jazirtul
Muqaddama-e-Jama Masjid, Calcutta
Aur Jughrafiae Aalam (MS)
On his return to
Calcutta, Azad's education was continued with the help of local
teachers. He was given rigorous training in all fields of Islamic
knowledge by tutors chosen and closely supervised by his father thus
enabling him to complete Dars-e-Nazamiah when he was only fifteen
years old, taking only one-third of the normal time for completing
this course. By 1905, when he was only seventeen years old, he had
proficiency in Islamic learning that he was recognized as a trained
theologian among the Muslim scholastic circles.
Immensed in the
closed world of learning, Azad longed for an escape from the
unusually rigorous scholastic atmosphere and to become a free man.
He could not get peace by just reading Islamic history and theology
and preaching it to faithfuls. During this period he also got an
exposure to the writings of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who patronized the
Aligarh school which was known for its pro colonial modernism which
Azad later sought to contest from a nationalist angle.
Khairuddin, scholar as he was and known for his learning and piety
had great aspiration for his son. Young Azad was provided classical
education in theology, jurisprudence and philosophy within the
confines of the orthodox Muslim faith. Azad also had opportunity to
visit the famous Al-Azhar University in Cairo during this period.
However, Azad was determined to charter out his own course in
learning. He realized that his traditional education needed to be
backed up by modern learning which, in turn necessitated the
knowledge of English. He acquired it by way of extensive reading.
Maulana Azad adopted the Maslak of Ahle-Hadeeth and was a staunch
preacher of the same.
writing poems and literary and political articles for Urdu
Newspapers and journals at a very early age. At the age of twelve,
he became a publisher and issued in 1900, a poetic journal called
Nairange-Alam which continued for eight months. At sixteen he
started editing his own paper, Lisan-us-Sidq which aimed at
promoting social reform, development of Urdu and cultivation of
literary taste. His association with Maulana Shibli, a renowned
scholar, in 1904 widened his social and literary inters. He
cultivated his natural talent for writing at home itself. The
influence of Shibli and Sayed
Ahmad Khan's writings acted as a further stimulant which found its
concrete expression in the unending flow of literary output that
India was to see in the years to come.
He was not a
conformist writer. Azad refused to be tied to inherited beliefs and
declined to succeed his father as a religious preceptor. He became a
questioner of things taken as established by others. All these
things made him so popular at a very early age that people meeting
him for the first time were shocked at his tender age and had to be
reassured that they were meeting the real Maulana Azad. This was
mainly due to the fact that Azad had acquired fame through his
journalistic writings and had impressed people as much by his lofty
and inspiring message as by his interpretation of Islam.
his Urdu weekly Al-Hilal on June, 1912 when he was only 24. He
believed that only by educating the 'Ulama, the learned in Law and
in theology, there would emerge a nucleus of dedicated and
idealistic elite which can act as a lever for the moral and
intellectual regeneration of the Muslim community. With the
launching of Al-Hilal, Azad shot into the National Movement. He gave
fearless and powerful expression to his nationalist ideas through
the journal. The basic intent of Al-Hilal was to launch a vigorous
attack not only on the colonial distortions of our history but more
on the pro-colonial modernism of the Aligarh School, which had
poisoned the minds of the Modernist Muslim intelligentsia. Al-HilaI
held out the message of nationalism to the Muslim elites as well as
the popular classes and urged them to join other communities in the
struggle for the liberation of the country.
immensely popular among the Muslim intelligentsia within a short
period. Its circulation
had reached 2, 90,000 by 1914, when the Government confiscated the
Al-Hilal Press after two years of continuous publication. Azad took
the view that by their crafty policy of divide and rule, the British
had made Hindus and Muslims antagonistic to each other. Azad
suggested to his people that the right course for both the
communities was to fight the British to prevent them from bringing
ruination to their country. Al-Hial was also critical of the Muslim
League, its aristocratic leadership and its style of functioning.
The journal inspired the educated Muslim to awaken to a new
Azad took to
poetry writing at the age of ten and when he was only sixteen, he
started editing his own paper. Azad's mind was in tensely
imaginative and highly romantic. He was endowed with tremendous
intellectual and mental capacities. Josh Malihabadi, the noted Urdu
poet and writer, once told Azad, “You actually belong to our tribe.
Your uniform is still lying with us. Why did you put on the livery
of politics?” Despite the underlying truth of Josh's remarks, the
contribution of Azad to literature and learning is of no mean
significance. It was through his writings that he reached out to the
writings, Tarjuman-ul-Quran published in 1931, occupies the pride of
pace. It was essentially a commentary on the sacred text of Islam,
which he used to demonstrate the moral legitimacy of India as a
homeland for the Muslim community in sub-continent. He desired to co
ordinate the teachings of Islam with the principles of human welfare
and for this it was necessary to cleanse the Islamic principles of
the myths and superstitions which had crept into them. Tarjuman
ul-Quran turned out to be a highly successful commentary as it
reflected Azad's amazingly vast store of knowledge, his clarity of
mind, his phenomenal memory and his extra-ordinary power of
expression and communication. Commenting on the fundamental unity of
all religions, Azad wrote in Tcffjuman-ul-Quran, “The fundamental
concept of all religions is belief in the existence of God. All the
religions teach the same truth and the worship of God is ingrained
in human nature. Thus differences in religion are created (only) by
three factors, dispute over the attributes of God, differences in
modes of worship, and differences in religious laws. These
differences are created by time circumstances, by environment. None
doubts the existence of God.”
unity of religions and oneness of God, he said, “The tragedy is that
the world worships words and not meanings and even though all are
seeking and worshipping but they quarrel with one another and differ
on mere names. Once the veil of names is lifted and the real meaning
being the same is brought out all quarrels would cease."
Tanuman-ul-Quran, Tazkirah is the most important book written by
Azad. It represents the first chapter of his autobiography though he
stopped proceeding further in autobiography lines after writing
about his great ancestors. However, it contains revelations about
Azad's life, more about his turbulent youth, presented in romantic
style. Tazkira was the first book of Azad to be published. It also
discusses religion, philosophy, logic, history, Sheikh Wasti, Imam
Ibn Taimiyya- two great Islamic
scholars, the life of the prophets and various other topics.
Ghubar-e-Khatir is Azad's last book before he wrote his
autobiography India Wins Freedom. After writing it, the
pre-occupation with politics gave him no time for writing. It is a
collection of letters, written as pastime, when he was detained in
the Ahmed Nagar Fort, to Nawab Salar Jung Habibur Rahman Khan
Sherwani- a renowned theologian with the Nizam's Government at
Hyderabad, which were never posted. These letters convey,
in balanced and dignified manner, the essence of Azad's mature
experience. Besides revealing various things about himself,
implicity or explicity, it also describes how prisoners spent their
days in Ahmednagar jail. He also attacked religious superstitions
and rituals and the conflicts between the creeds. There is no better
or more reliable source for any biographer of Azad than
Ghubare-Khatir. It carries details about Azads' personal bio-data,
his family history, his education, his psychological make-ups and
the motivations that shaped his character.
Ummid.com is part of
Multimedia & Publications
providing World News, News Analysis and Feature
Articles on Education, Health. Politics, Technology,
Sports, Entertainment, Industry etc.
The articles or the views displayed on this website are for public
information and in no way describe the editorial views. The users are
entitled to use this site subject to the terms and condition mentioned.